Real Estate Formulas for Investors

There is more to real estate investment than the property itself. A few decisions need to be made before you purchase the property. You will need to know certain calculations to make the right decision.

The Question you should ask yourself first; Are you holding the property as a rental or are you going to rehab it and flip the property?

Remember, your profit is usually determined when you buy the property, not when it sells. This means, if you buy the property for the right price, you will receive the profit margins predicted.

Using a Realtor, you can get help with some of the information you will need to complete the formulas or double check the numbers. Websites like Zillow and other public sites offer FREE VALUATION but can provide inaccurate information.

Gross Scheduled Income

The Gross Scheduled Income Formula presents the amount of income your property will generate if all units within it are rented and if there are no defaults in rent payments. This can be a useful measure to compare against actual income.

Talk with your Realtor to view comparable rentals in the area. Many investors guess the rental amount or set the amount catered towards a return on investment. However, rental comps are as crucial as sales comps for marketing the property, You want to be conservative in your calculations while testing the cap in the market of your property’s location.

Real Estate Formula:

Gross Scheduled Income = Rental Income + Lost Rental Income from Vacant Units

Gross Operating Income

Gross Operating Income reflects the total income generated by an asset including additional sources of income from your rental property. A few examples would be revenue generated from parking spaces, laundry, and vending machines

Real Estate Formula:

Gross Operating Income = (GSI – Lost Rental Income from Vacant Units) + Other Income

Net Operating Income

To use the Net Operating Income formula, you first need to figure out your gross operating income. Once you have that figure, you subtract operating expenses from costs like insurance and maintenance fees.

Please note, amounts like property depreciation and interest payments do not factor into operating costs. 

Real Estate Formula:

Net Operating Income = Gross Operating Income – Total Operating Expenses

Capitalization Rate

An important formula for an investor to know is the Cap Rate. The cap rate formula compares an investment property’s net operating income against the market value, allowing investors to quickly compare property profitability.

Real Estate Formula:

Cap Rate = Net Operating Income / Market Value of Property

Cash on Cash Return

Determining your Cash on Cash Return is crucial in real estate investing. It’s widely utilized since it allows investors to compare investments and evaluate profitability. A spreadsheet is a great way to view side-by-side comparisons between properties that are similar. By setting up a spreadsheet with formulas, you can quickly calculate income and expenses to estimate returns.

To use the cash on cash return formula, you simply divide the net operating income by your total cash investment. Typically, your total cash investment will include the down payment, closing costs, renovation costs, and any other up-front fees you paid to acquire the investment property.

Real Estate Formula:

Cash on Cash Return = Net Operating Income / Total Cash Investment

Equity Build-Up Rate

Smart real estate investments do not always come in the form of immediate income. Some properties are sought after due to their potential to build equity, therefore becoming more valuable assets in the future. This simple real estate formula can help in measuring these gains.

Consulting with a Realtor is a good way to see how quickly an area is growing in value.

Real Estate Formula:

Equity Build-Up Rate = Mortgage Principal Paid (Year 1) / Initial Cash Invested (Year 1)

Price to Rent Ratio 

This figure shows projected rental income, versus the price a property was purchased for. This is useful when comparing residential real estate investments. Like other calculations, a spreadsheet with formulas can assist with quicker decisions.

Real Estate Formula:

Price to Rent Ratio = Purchase Price of Property / Annual Rental Revenue

Price Per Square Foot

The price per square foot formula proves useful when quickly comparing multiple properties. Savvy investors can use this calculation to evaluate if a rental property is overpriced before it is purchased. Your Realtor can help you evaluate this in depth by pulling both rental and sales comps, which list the price per square foot (as-is, not post-rehab).

Real Estate Formula:

Price Per Square Foot = Market Value of Property / Property Square Footage

Return on Investment

The return on investment formula allows you to calculate how much of your initial investment can be recovered annually.

Real Estate Formula:

Return on Investment = Annual Returns / Cost of Investment

Cash Flow From Operations

Successful real estate investments should require more money coming in than going out. You need to subtract your capital expenditures (roughly defined as large expenses that do not reoccur) from your net operating income to determine cash flow from operations.

Real Estate Formula:

Cash Flow From Operations = Net Operating Income – Capital Expenditures

Cash Flow After Financing

Considering that most real estate investors have borrowed money in order to purchase their investment, this cash flow formula can provide a better idea of what your cash flow is like after financing

Real Estate Formula:

Cash Flow After Financing = Cash Flow From Operations – Financing Costs

Occupancy Rate

Occupancy Rate reflects the time that an investment property is rented out or vacant over a period of time. Your occupancy rate is an important indicator of success, and a low occupancy rate can let you know that action is needed from your end.

Low occupancy can occur when properties are in need of repair. People tend to seek alternative housing if a landlord is not maintaining the property or did not complete some repairs required previously. Landlords can “promise” to fix things to get people to move in, while in turn causing them to move out as fast.

Real Estate Formula:

Occupancy Rate = Number of Days Occupied / Total Number of Days in One Year

Break Even Ratio

This figure is often used to evaluate risk when purchasing a real estate investment. Too high of a ration can indicate an up-hill battle to break even with an investment property and recoup debts.

Real Estate Formula:

Break Even Ratio = (Debt Servicing Costs + Operating Expenses) / Gross Operating Income

Gross Rent Multiplier

The Gross Rent Multiplier real estate formula allows investors to figure out the market value of a rental property. This is especially useful when selling a rental property, as it helps set the right price without wasting days on market.

You will want to compare notes with a Realtor. This calculation can help set the value based on the numbers, but it is always good to have a second pair of eyes.

Real Estate Formula:

Gross Rent Multiplier = Market Value / Gross Scheduled Income

Debt Service Coverage Ratio

This real estate formula can be used to figure out the current cash flow you have available to recoup the debt which financed your investment.

Real Estate Formula:

Debt Service Coverage Ratio = Net Operating Income – Annual Debt Service

 

Real Estate Formulas for Investors

Joseph Walter Realty

 

If you have a question about buying or selling your home, please reach out to Joseph Walter Realty at 248-294-7849 or via email at info@josephwalterrealty.com 

Thank you,

Scott Fader and Gary Brincat
Joseph Walter Realty

Joseph Walter Realty is a veteran owned company located in Michigan. Scott Fader and Gary Brincat are two of Michigan’s multi-million-dollar top producers. They have been working in real estate as brokers, Realtors, investors, property managers and real estate company owners for over 20 years. Together they would like to share their experiences, knowledge, success and failures to help buyers, sellers, Realtors, brokers and anyone else in the real estate and business, so that together we can grow as a community.

 

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Pre-Qualification and Pre-Approval

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Lender Letters

When you are selling your home For Sale by Owner or even with an agent, you’ll need to understand what kind of approval is provided with an offer. Many people get pre-qualification and pre-approval mixed up but they are entirely different as to how secure their financing is.

Always inspect lender letters carefully

The mortgage industry often times provide relaxed letters of qualification or approval for clients who may or may not be able to close on the house. 

We will look at pre-qualifications and pre-approvals further below.

Pre-Qualification

What is a pre-qualification Letter

Pre-Qualifications are lender letters based on estimates of a buyer’s overall financial situation.

Estimates on debt, income, and assets are provided to the bank or lender. The lender then reviews everything and gives a price range of how much the borrower can expect to receive.

These can be done online or directly with lender. Furthermore, they are typically free to complete.

How is it Different than a pre-approval?

Pre-qualification is quick, usually taking just one to three days to get a letter. Keep in mind that loan pre-qualification does not include an analysis of credit reports or an in-depth look at the borrower’s ability to purchase a home.

The lender in a pre-qualification usually does not receive any documentation. The potential borrower is verbally providing an idea of who they are financially.

A pre-qualified buyer does not carry the same weight as a pre-approved buyer. As a Realtor, I tend to stay away from pre-qualified letters for offers and request that the borrower go back and get a full pre-approval.

Pre-Approval

What Is a Pre-Approval Letter? 

A pre-approval is an offer (but not a commitment) to lend a specific amount, valid for 90 days.

Getting a pre-approval involves extra steps for the buyer, but it further ensures a borrower can close a deal.

This type of letter is usually based on firm financial records. Bank statements, W-2, 1099, tax returns, investment accounts or credit scores are generally used.

The borrower must complete an official mortgage application to get pre-approved, and supply the lender with all the necessary documentation to perform an extensive credit and financial background check.

The lender will then offer a pre-approval up to a specified amount.

Lenders will provide a conditional commitment in writing for an exact loan amount, allowing borrowers to look for homes at or below that price level.

This puts borrowers at an advantage when dealing with a seller because they are one step closer to getting an actual mortgage.

Side note

Remember there are still conditions to be met on the mortgage side, even with a pre-approved letter.

You should always call the lender and have a brief discussion about the pre-approval letter.

Find out if there is anything major lacking from the file that could cause the loan to pause or be denied at later date.

Make sure they have reviewed credit, all documents and ask if they owe the lender anything.

Sellers

DO NOT BE AFRAID TO ASK QUESTIONS TO THE LENDER OR BUYERS AGENT!

Pre-Qualification and Pre-Approval

Service Coverage

If you have a question about buying or selling your home, please reach out to Joseph Walter Realtyat 248-294-7849 or via email: info@josephwalterrealty.com 

Thank you,

Scott Fader and Gary Brincat
Joseph Walter Realty

Joseph Walter Realty is a veteran owned company located in Michigan. Scott Fader and Gary Brincat are two of Michigan’s multi-million-dollar top producers. They have been working in real estate as brokers, Realtors, investors, property managers and real estate company owners for over 20 years. Together they would like to share their experiences, knowledge, success and failures to help buyers, sellers, Realtors, brokers and anyone else in the real estate and business, so that together we can grow as a community.


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What is a Real Estate Appraisal?

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What is an Appraisal?

If you have bought or sold your own personal residence, investment, or commercial property; you have probably dealt with the appraisal process.

Real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation is the process of developing an opinion of property value based on market statistics and property data

Appraisal reports form the basis for mortgage loans, settling estates and divorces, taxation, and so on.

As the seller or selling agent, even with the most up to date information, appraisals can come in with unexpected values.

Buyers cannot chose the appraisal company or the appraiser they use (I will not say that this is 100% of the time, but in most cases where a loan is involved, the buyer will be hands off and should remain hands off).

An appraisal is a safety net for the bank and the buyer. The bank needs to protect its loan with a piece of real estate at a specific loan to value.

Value

The location also plays a key role in valuation. However, since property cannot change location, it is often the upgrades or improvements to the home that can change its value.

Renegotiating the deal after the appraisal can be a struggle. Even through it was offered, the bank will not accept something lower and most of the time the buyer is not willing to come to the table with more money than the home is currently worth.

Buyers and their agents should also do their homework to make sure the offer they are submitting matches the value of homes in the area.

Sellers and listing agents should have comps ready to go in case the appraisal comes back lower than offer price.

You can submit these comps to the appraisal company to fight the appraisal. The more comparables shared, the higher the chance of an appraisal adjustment.

Although in my opinion there is a better chance at winning the lottery, than getting appraisers to adjust their report.

 

If you have a question about buying or selling your home, please reach out to Joseph Walter Realtyat 248-294-7849 or via email: info@josephwalterrealty.com 

Thank you,

Scott Fader and Gary Brincat
Joseph Walter Realty

Joseph Walter Realty is a veteran owned company located in Michigan. Scott Fader and Gary Brincat are two of Michigan’s multi-million-dollar top producers. They have been working in real estate as brokers, Realtors, investors, property managers and real estate company owners for over 20 years. Together they would like to share their experiences, knowledge, success and failures to help buyers, sellers, Realtors, brokers and anyone else in the real estate and business, so that together we can grow as a community.

Michigan Licensed Broker 6505431020
Ohio Licensed Broker 2020008974
Florida Licensed Broker BK3491231
Texas Licensed Broker 9010704
Arkansas Licensed Broker PB00090741
Georgia Licensed Broker 79028

More states 2021


3275 Martin Parkway, Ste. 125, Walled Lake, MI 48390

what is an appraisal

 

What is an FHA Loan?

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An FHA insured loan is a US Federal Housing Administration mortgage insurance backed mortgage loan that is provided by an FHA-approved lender. FHA insured loans are a type of federal assistance.

These loans have historically allowed lower-income Americans to borrow money to purchase a home that they would not otherwise be able to afford.

Because this type of loan is more geared towards new house owners than real estate investors, FHA loans are different from conventional loans in the sense that the house must be owner-occupant for at least a year. 

When you are selling your home, whether it is For Sale by Owner or traditionally with a real estate agent/Realtor, you will have to understand the offers presented to you and the financing the buyers been approved for.

Each type of financing can be different, and each have their pros and cons

FHA Loan Benefits

FHA allows first time homebuyers to put down as little as 3.5% and receive up to 6% towards closing costs. However, some lenders will not allow a seller to contribute more than 3% toward allowable closing costs.

Since loans with lower down-payments usually involve more risk to the lender, the homebuyer must pay a two-part mortgage insurance that involves a one-time bulk payment and a monthly payment to compensate for the increased risk.

If little or no credit exists for the applicants, the FHA will allow a qualified non-occupant co-borrower to co-sign for the loan without requiring that person to reside in the home with the first-time homebuyer. The co-signer does not have to be a blood relative. This is called a Non-Occupying Co-Borrower.

FHA also allows gifts to be used for down payment from the following sources:

  • the borrower’s relative
  • the borrower’s employer or labor union
  • a close friend with a clearly defined and documented interest in the borrower
  • a charitable organization
  • a governmental agency or public entity that has a program providing home ownership assistance.

Pros and Cons of FHA Loans

Now we will look at the pros and cons of the FHA loan so you can further understand the buyer you will be working with. The pros and cons are directly about the loans themselves. By understands the good and the bad of the loan product, you can choose to accept the FHA offer or state in your MLS listing you will accept FHA loans.

One thing I would like to point out from a Realtor perspective, is that just because someone cannot afford 20% down, it does not make the offer less desirable. If the client is approved for the offer amount in purchase agreement, the offer has merit to consider.

Pros

Low down payment with low credit scores

FHA loans require a 3.5% down payment with a credit score of 580 or more, much lower than the 620-score required by conventional lenders.

Employers, close friends, family members or charitable organizations can contribute gift money towards your FHA down payment.

In contrast, some conventional loan programs do not allow gifts or restrict who can contribute gift funds for a down payment.

Lower credit score with a higher down payment

The lowest credit score for an FHA mortgage is 500 to 579 with a 10% percent down payment.

Applicants with credit problems, including bankruptcy or foreclosure in their recent financial history, may still qualify for an FHA loan.

Higher debt-to-income ratio (DTI) is allowed

Your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio is calculated by dividing your total monthly debt payments by your gross monthly income.

FHA loans allow for a DTI ratio up to 43%, although some lenders will accept a higher DTI under certain conditions. Meanwhile, a higher DTI may require a 740 score for minimum down payment conventional financing.

Housing options

An FHA loan can be applied to several housing types:

  • Single Family homes
  • Multi Family homes with up to four units
  • Condominiums
  • Manufactured homes on a permanent foundation.

Another perk: You can use an FHA loan to buy a multi family (two-to-four unit home) with a 3.5% down payment and qualify with rent on the other units as long as you live in the home for a year.

No income limits

Higher-income earners with credit problems can qualify for FHA financing with a minimum down payment. You cannot qualify for 3% down conventional loan programs, such as the Fannie Mae HomeReady® loan, if your household income is more than 80% of your area’s median income.

Cheaper monthly mortgage insurance for low credit scores

If you cannot swing a 20% down payment, lenders usually charge mortgage insurance to cover the risk of default if you fail to repay the loan. You’ll pay the same FHA mortgage insurance premium regardless of your credit score. On the other hand, conventional private mortgage insurance (PMI) premiums are much higher if you have bad credit.

Cons

Higher total mortgage insurance costs

Borrowers pay a monthly FHA mortgage insurance premium (MIP) and upfront mortgage insurance premium (UFMIP) of 1.75% on every FHA loan, regardless of down payment. A 20% down payment eliminates the need for PMI on a conventional purchase loan. You can also cancel PMI once you build 20% equity in your home.

Restrictive housing standards

The government requires that all homes bought with FHA-backed loans are structurally sound and secure, and meet minimum health and safety standards. A picky appraiser can make it difficult for a house need renovations to be approved for an FHA loan.

Lower loan limits

Each year, the FHA sets FHA loan limits by county. This may impact how much home you can buy with an FHA loan, especially in high-cost areas. In general, FHA limits are 65% of an area’s conforming loan limits. For example, conforming loan limits in most parts of the country are $510,400, compared to $331,760 for FHA loan limits for 2020.

Limited to a primary residence only

You can only use an FHA loan to buy a home you plan to live in as a primary residence. To finance a vacation or investment property, you will need a conventional loan.

Lifetime mortgage insurance expense

If you opt for an FHA loan with a minimum down payment, you are stuck with the MIP for the life of the loan. The only way to get rid of it is to refinance into a different loan type, such as a conventional mortgage. 

 

The information here is provided for informational purposes. The writer is not a mortgage or financing professional. It is always best to discuss financing matters with a mortgage or financing professional.

If you have a question about buying or selling your home, please reach out to Joseph Walter Realtyat 248-294-7849 or via email: info@josephwalterrealty.com 

Thank you,

Scott Fader and Gary Brincat
Joseph Walter Realty

Joseph Walter Realty is a veteran owned company located in Michigan. Scott Fader and Gary Brincat are two of Michigan’s multi-million-dollar top producers. They have been working in real estate as brokers, Realtors, investors, property managers and real estate company owners for over 20 years. Together they would like to share their experiences, knowledge, success and failures to help buyers, sellers, Realtors, brokers and anyone else in the real estate and business, so that together we can grow as a community.

Michigan Licensed Broker 6505431020
Ohio Licensed Broker 2020008974
Florida Licensed Broker BK3491231
Texas Licensed Broker 9010704
Arkansas Licensed Broker PB00090741
Georgia Licensed Broker 79028

More states 2021


3275 Martin Parkway, Ste. 125, Walled Lake, MI 48390

Joseph Walter Realty

 

What is a Conventional Loan?

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A conventional mortgage or conventional loan is any type of home buyer’s loan that is not offered or secured by a government entity.

Conventional mortgages are available through private lenders, such as banks, credit unions, and mortgage companies. However, some conventional mortgages can be guaranteed by two government-sponsored enterprises: The Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac).

Conventional mortgages typically have a fixed rate of interest, which means that the interest rate does not change throughout the life of the loan.

Conventional mortgages or loans are not guaranteed by the federal government and as a result, typically have stricter lending requirements by banks and creditors.

When you are selling your home, whether it is For Sale by Owner or traditionally with a real estate agent/Realtor, you will have to understand the offers presented to you and the financing they have been approved for.

Each type of financing can be different, and each have their pros and cons. Let’s look at the conventional loan.

Conventional Loan Requirements

In the years since the subprime mortgage meltdown in 2007, lenders have tightened the qualifications for loans—“no verification” and “no down payment” mortgages have gone with the wind, for example—but overall most of the basic requirements haven’t changed.

Potential borrowers complete an official mortgage application, then supply the lender with the necessary documents to perform an extensive check on their background, credit history, and current credit score.

No property is ever 100% financed. In checking your assets and liabilities, a lender is looking to see not only if you can afford your monthly mortgage payments, which usually shouldn’t exceed 28% of your gross income.

The lender is also looking to see if you can handle a down payment on the property (and if so, how much), along with other up-front costs, such as loan origination or underwriting fees, broker fees, and settlement or closing costs, all of which can significantly drive up the cost of a mortgage.

Among the items required are:

Proof of Income

These documents will include but may not be limited to:

  • Thirty days of pay stubs that show income as well as year-to-date income
  • Two years of federal tax returns
  • Sixty days or a quarterly statement of all asset accounts, including your checking, savings, and any investment accounts
  • Two years of W-2 statements

Borrowers also need to be prepared with proof of any additional income, such as alimony or bonuses.

Assets

You will need to present bank statements and investment account statements to prove that you have funds for the down payment and closing costs on the residence, as well as cash reserves. If you receive money from a friend or relative to assist with the down payment, you will need gift letters, which certify that these are not loans and have no required or obligatory repayment. These letters will often need to be notarized.

Employment Verification

Lenders today want to make sure they are loaning only to borrowers with a stable work history. Your lender will not only want to see your pay stubs but may also call your employer to verify that you are still employed and to check your salary.

If you have recently changed jobs, a lender may want to contact your previous employer. Self-employed borrowers will need to provide significant additional paperwork concerning their business and income.

Other Documentation

Your lender will need to copy your driver’s license or state ID card and will need your Social Security number and your signature, allowing the lender to pull your credit report.

Most sellers tend to favor the conventional loan. These borrowers tend to be putting more down, they tend to have better credit, and they meet tighter requirements that lead to their approval. This does not mean, FHA or VA offers will not close or are inferior, it is just another or different type of financing.

As a Realtor, I do prefer conventional, but look at all offers to decide which one will benefit the client. All offers are different when they come in, just like the financing. It is sifting through all the information to decide which offer and financing meets the needs of the situation.

The information here is provided for informational purposes. The writer is not a mortgage or financing professional. It is always best to discuss financing matters with a mortgage or financing professional.

If you have a question about buying or selling your home, please reach out to Joseph Walter Realtyat 248-294-7849 or via email: info@josephwalterrealty.com 

Thank you,

Scott Fader and Gary Brincat
Joseph Walter Realty

Joseph Walter Realty is a veteran owned company located in Michigan. Scott Fader and Gary Brincat are two of Michigan’s multi-million-dollar top producers. They have been working in real estate as brokers, Realtors, investors, property managers and real estate company owners for over 20 years. Together they would like to share their experiences, knowledge, success and failures to help buyers, sellers, Realtors, brokers and anyone else in the real estate and business, so that together we can grow as a community.

Michigan Licensed Broker 6505431020
Ohio Licensed Broker 2020008974
Florida Licensed Broker BK3491231
Texas Licensed Broker 9010704
Arkansas Licensed Broker PB00090741
Georgia Licensed Broker 79028

More states 2021


3275 Martin Parkway, Ste. 125, Walled Lake, MI 48390

Joseph Walter Realty